[Simplified Spelling Society Newsletter Autumn 1985 pp18-24. Later designated Journal 1]
[Back to Part 1, Discussion and Rules, CSbook, journal articles about CS and other articles by Chris Upward.]

Cut Spelling as a First-Stage Reform,
Part 2, Reading practice, Exercises and Key.

Christopher Upward.

7.1 Cut Spelling Reading Practice.

This CS text also demonstrates the substitution rule GH/PH = /f/ = F. Read the text twice, once as fluently as possible, then more slowly, noting the variations from t.o.:

Altho we ofn se unusul spelings such as 'Donut', english-speakrs ar normly taut evry word has a singl corect speling wich must be lernt, howevr much it difrs from th sound. Yet in most othr languages peple no speling needs modrnizing ocasnly, in acordnce with pronunciatn or riting and reading habits. English has undrgon few changes in th past thre centuris howevr, tho genratns of scoolchildrn hav found it an obstcl to efectiv litracy. Not merely can most letrs be soundd in numerus difrnt ways, but ther ar so many ways to rite most sounds, and to make matrs wors, printd texts ar litrd with letrs wich cud be dispensd with altogethr - as this paragraf is intendd to sho. (14% letters saved)

7.2 Rule 1 Exercises.

1. Write these words omitting the redundant letter:
plait
wrath
threat
heir
white
ascent
boar
guard
court
peace
centre
chaos
earth
climate
witch
friend
yeoman
rhythm
seize
turkey
heated
come
gauge
doctrinaire
sergeant
campaign
helped
ghost
whole
dye
sapphire
island
shone
bazaar
doubt
bomb
czar
badge
cities
frenzied
juice
window
camouflage
were
heart
beauty
chlorine
heroine
people
obvious
why
courtesy
piece
gnome
serve

2. Write these words omitting both redundant letters:
whore
aisle
ptomaine
tongue
should
porpoise
eye
convalesce
foreign
trouble
weight
psalm
psychology
caps
caught
couple
handsome
Wednesday
meadow
acquisitive
sieve
journey
bough
subtle
jealous

3. Write these words omitting all redundant letters:
autumn
build
please
double
courage
wheeze
exhaustive
blackguard
January
muscle
condemned
straight
drought
tortoise
pharaoh
cupboard
knelt
kidney
psychotic
ocean

7.3 Rule 2. Exercises.

1. Write these words simplifying the doubled consonants.
(NB i not all repeated consonants are 'doubled';
ii DJ, CK, XC count as doubled J, K, X):
rabbit
adjust
opportunity
buzz
accommodate
ammonite
assimilate
committee
support
massacre
occur
sack
err
abbreviate
afford
annotate
attribute
connexion
odd
irrelevant
add
all
fuss
accept
aggravate
appetite
illusion
innocent
fizz
connoisseur
cuff
annul
attire
account
adjudicate
irradiate
parallel
exaggerate
appalling
unnatural
egg
choppy
except
adds
alleviate
excite
inn
corrupt
fully
worry

2. Write these words as required by Rules 1 & 2:
fulfilled
haemorrhage
rheumatism
acknowledge
allowed
apple
success
innocuous
married
bacchic
wholly
parallelled
scissors
rubble
addressed
traveller
appropriate
whinny
possessive
tapped
pillow
licked
furry
valley
sizzle

7.4 Rule 3.1 Exercises.

1 Write these words without spelling post-accentual shwa:
animal
flotsam
curtain
burglar
vigour
vowel
problem
dependant
modern
injure
devil
denim
dependent
sulphur
standard
petrol
quantum
raisin
satyr
history
awful
venom
season
author
anger

2. Write these words without spelling post-accentual shwa, noting the repeated consonants:
maximumconsonantconjurorFebruary linen

3. Write these words without spelling post-accentual shwa, noting the palatalized consonants:
special
mission
politician
condition
proficient
crucifixion
suspicion
picture
vision
seizure

4. Write these words, applying Rules 1, 2 & 3.1:
lacquer
difficult
measure
channel
written
innovation
pressure
differ
smaller
thicker
chattels
supplement
banner
different
bigger
thicken
battles
straightened
pennant
sufficient
beggar
thickener
battlement
corrosion
mirror
scissors
builder
bottom
cotton
addition

7.5 Rule 3.2 Exercises.

1. Write these words without unstressed E and simplify any doubled consonants:
baited
rooted
hisses
raided
hooded
losses
conceited
pushes
gases
heeded
pouches
coldest
loaded
bridges
lushest

2. Write these words, applying Rules 1, 2 & 3.2:
biggest
embedded
sweated
congresses
touches
discusses
catches
discuses
guarded
fittest

7.6 GH.

1. Write these words omitting GH:
naughty
weight
straight
drought
onslaught
bough
plough
taught
neigh
sleigh

2. Write these words omitting GH and any other redundant letters according to Rules 1, 2 & 3:
daughterthroughalthoughneighbour brought

3. Write these words with F instead of GH and without any other redundant letters according to rules 1, 2 & 3:
laughterenoughcough draughtsmantough

4. Write these words without G:
brighthighmightymidnightalright

5. Write these words omitting G and any other redundant letters in accordance with rules 1, 2 & 3.
heightshipwrightfrightenedeyesight slightest

6. Write these words omitting letters in accordance with all the above rules and patterns:
rougher
eighty
farsighted
slaughter
heighten
sleighbell
draughty
sought-after
frightful
well-thought-of

7.7 PH.

1. Write these words with F instead of PH where appropriate:
telephone
atmosphere
photograph
philosophy
physics
nephew
uphold
pharmacy
elephant
phrase

2. Write these words with F instead of PH where appropriate, and omit other letters in accordance with all the above rules and patterns:

phantomupheavalphysicalshepherd orphan

7.8 QU.

Write these words without U after Q and omit other letters in accordance with all the above rules and patterns:
quite
equal
quiet
conqueror
question
mosquito
queue
unique
acquaint
opaque

7.9 Doubtful cases.

Consider how and whether the following might be cut:
great
fatal
borough
break
penal
thorough
broad
final
dough
group
total
conscientious
sign
comb
squirrel

7.10 Transcription exercise.

Write the following text in Cut Spelling:

The Japanese have two ways of writing many of their words: they can write a character for each syllable, or a single logograph for the whole word. The latter system, it has been found, is read faster. Why should this be? Consider the physiology of reading: the eye moves along the line of script not smoothly, but in jerks (fixations), and at each fixation the brain registers only that segment of text that falls within the angle of vision. If words are shorter, more of them will tend to fall within the scope of each fixation, which should make reading quicker. Harder to assess however is whether there is any psycho logical obstacle to digesting more meaning per second.

Reading of course is only one aspect of literacy. The benefits of a more economical script for the writer are easier to calculate. If 10% fewer letters are needed, then writing will be that much faster; and if spelling is more regular, there will be fewer errors and less recourse to the dictionary. When these words come to be printed, there will be similar savings on paper, the amount of space the paper takes up, the amount of energy required for making paper, printing and transport. Public sign-boards will no longer need to be so big, as many place-names will be shorter, sometimes sensationally. If the city of Leicester only ever used the spelling 'Lestr', the gains might even be measurable in the rate-payers' pockets.

8 Key to CS Exercises.

Please note that a number of problematic forms are included in the answers (with a few alternative forms), which it is hoped will provoke discussion.

7.2.1 plat
rath
thret
eir
wite
asent
>bor
gard
cort
pece
centr
caos
erth
climat
wich
frend
yoman
rythm
seze
turky
heald
com
gage
doctrinair
sergent
campain
helpd
gost
hole
dy
saphire
iland
shon
bazar
dout
bom
zar
badg
citis
frenzid
juce
windo
camuflage
wer
hart
beuty
clorine
heroin
peple
obvius
wy
curtesy
pece
nome
serv
7.2.2 hor
ile
tomain
tong
shud
porpos
y
convales
foren
trubl
weit
sam
sycology
cor
caut
cupl
hansom
wensday
medo
aquisitiv
siv
jurny
bou
sutl
jelus
7.2.3 autm
bild
plese
dubl
curage
weez/weze
exaustiv
blagard
janury
musl
condemd
strait
drout
tortos
pharo
cubord
nelt
kidny
sycotic
ocen
7.3.1 rabit
ajust
oportunity
buz
acomodate
amonite
asimilate
comitee
suport
masacre
ocur
sak
er
abreviate
aford
anotate
atribute
conexion
ad
irelevant
ad
al
fus
accept
agravate
apetite
ilusion
inocent
fiz
conoiseur
cuf
anul
atire
acount
ajudicate
iradiate
paralel
exagerate
apaling
unatural
eg
chopy
exept
adict
aleviate
exite
in
corupt
fuly
wory
7.3.2 fulfild
hemorage
reumatism
aknoledg
alowd
apl
succes
inocuus
marid
bacic
holy
paraleld
sisors
rubl
adresd
travler
apropriat
winy
posesiv
tapd
pilo
likd
fury
valy
sizl
7.4.1 animl
flotsm
curtn
burglr
vigr
vowl
problm
dependnt
modrn
injr
devl
denm
dependnt
sulphr
standrd
petrl
quantin
raisn
satr
histry
awfl
venm
seasn
authr
angr
7.4.2maximmconsonntconjrrfebrry linn
7.4.3 specl
misn
politicn
conditn
proficnt
crucifixn
suspicn
pictr
visn
seizr/sezre
7.4.4 lacr
banr
mesr
chanl
ritn
inovatn
presr
pennt
smalr
thikr
chatls
suplemnt
dificit
mirr
bigr
thikn
batis
straitnd
difr
suficnt
begr
thiknr
batlmnt
corosn
difrnt
sisrs
bildr
botm
cotn
aditn
7.5.1 baitd
rootd
hiss
raidd
hoodd
loss
conceitd
pushs
gass
heedd
pouchs
coldst
loadd
bridgs
lushst
7.5.2 bigst
embedd
swetd
congress
tuchs
discuss
cachs
discuss
gardd
fitst
7.6.1 nauty
weit
strait
drout
onslaut
bou
plou
taut
nei
slei
7.6.2dautrthrualthoneibr brot
7.6.3laftrenufcofdraftsman tuf
7.6.4brihthihmihtymidniht alriht
7.6.5hihtshiprihtfrihtndysiht slihtst
7.6.6 rufr
eity
farsihtd
slautr
hihtn
sleibel
drafty
sot-aftr
frihtfl
wel-thot-of
7.7.1 telefone
atmosfere
fotograf
filosofy
fysics
nefew
uphold
farmacy
elefnt
frase
7.7.2fantmupheavlfysiclsheprd orfn
7.8 qite
eqal
qiet
conqrr
qestn
mosqito
qu
uniqe
aqaint
opaqe
7.9 gret
fatal
boro
brek
penal
thoro
brod
final
doh
grup
total
concientius
sign
comb
sqirel

7.10.
Th Japnese hav t(w?)o ways of riting many of ther words: they can rite a caractr for each sylbl, or a singl logograf for th hole word. Th latr systm, it has been found, is red fastr. Wy shud this be? Considr th fysiology of reading: th y moves along th line of script not smoothly, but in jerks (fixatns), and at each fixatn th brain registrs only that segmnt of text that fals within th angl of visn. If words ar shortr, mor of them wil tend to fal within th scope of each fixatn, wich shud make reading qikr. Hardr to ases howevr is wethr ther is any sycologicl obstcl to digesting mor meaning per secnd.

Reading of cors is only one aspect of litracy. Th benefits of a mor economicl script for th riter ar easir to calculate. If 10% fewr letrs ar needd, then riting wil be that much fastr; and if speling is mor regulr, ther wil be fewr errs and les recors to th dictnry. Wen these words com to be printd, ther wit be similr savings on paper, th amount of space th paper takes up, th amount of energy reqired for making paper, printing and transport. Public sign-bords wit no longr need to be so big, as many place-names wil be shortr, somtimes sensatnly. If th city of Lestr only evr used th speling 'Lestr', th gains miht even be mesrbl in th rate-payrs pokets.
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