[Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society, 1989/1 pp.5-9, later designated J10]
[Jean Hutchins: see Journals, Newsletters.]
Wy dyslexics need simplifyd speling.
Jean Hutchins chairs th Computer Sub-Comitee of th British Dyslexia Association (BDA), represents th BDA on th SSS comitee, and is a membr of th Cut Speling Working Group. She has many years of experience of teaching children with Specific Lerning Dificltis (SpLD), having workd for Local Education Authoritis for 17 years as both a class teachr and a remedial teachr, and currently is Corse Tutor for th Royal Society of Arts Diploma in SpLD at St Bartholomews Hospitl, London. This articl is an editd transcription of an adress she gave to th Simplified Spelling Society on 13 febrry 1988, and is publishd in th experimentl Cut Speling systm; readrs ar invited to coment on its forms.
Th classic dyslexic.Som 10 years ago I had a privat pupil cald Tony. He was 12 years old, and aftr one lesn he said, "I do wish we cud spel words as we say them - but u'd be out of a job then, wudnt u?" I replyd, "Tony, I wudnt mind if it wer esir for u to read and rite." Now Tony had hy intelijnce, and aftr som 18 months of tuition he cud read quite satisfactrly, in th sense of being avraj for his aje tho stil undracheving. If reading had been th only problm, he wud no longr hav needd to keep coming to me. But as his speling dificltis persistd, I had to go on teaching him. His fathr was also dyslexic - th problm dos very oftn run in famlis. Tony was a classic dyslexic. He was in fact a pupil in th scool wher I was a remedial teachr, and wher I taut him in a group of about 6 children. His fathr askd me to giv him extra help at home. He was a boy of hom th teachrs said in a tone of surprise, "Oh, is he remedial? To talk to him u wudnt think ther was anything rong with him." That is wy dyslexia is cald 'th hidn handicap': wen u look at these children and wen u talk to them, u normly notice nothing stranje.
A problm for al children.Gregory is six and a haf years old. His intelijnce quotient is about 110, rathr abov avraj. I hav been seing him for six months, and in that time I hav taut him th sounds of singl letrs, blending (how two or thre letrs togethr can sound) and th principl of ryming. We wer making progress, with me teaching him words like red, fed, bed - until he ofrd said, and I had to say, "Yes, that sounds th same, we'l do it othr time." I cudnt say, "That's rong", because he had aplyd th principl of ryming wich I had just been teaching him. So having lernt red, bed, he wil then hav th dificlty of facing dead, head with an <a> in them. I comentd on this to his Hedmastr, ho said, "Oh, lots of children get that rong!" If lots of children do, that surely shows ther is al the mor reasn to do somthing about th way words ar spelt.
Groing awareness of th problm.I returnd to teaching in 1972, after having children, and then found the word dyslexia was being used in magazine articls and television programs, altho nobody localy cud explain it. In 1975 1 visitd sevrl dyslexia centrs, including th Dyslexia Clinic at St Bartholomews Hospitl, th Dyslexia Institute, th Helen Arkell Dyslexia Centr, and Aston University, wher Margaret Newton was developing th Aston Index. Th teaching that intrestd me most was th multisensry method used at St Bartholomews, Alpha to Omega. 
In 1975 I was 40, I had been teaching for a long time, I had yung children of my own, and I had been a remedial teachr. But I did not no ther was a set of words like was, wash, want, what, whatever, wand, swan wher <a> has th sound of short <o>, nor that any children had to sit down and learn such lists. I new how to spel them, but I did not no, even tho I was a remedial teachr, that for som children and som adults one had to orgnise those words in lists.
Dyslexia and adults.Since then ther has been a lot of publicity about dyslexia and famus peple ho hav this problm: Susan Hampshire th actress, Duncan Goodhew th swimr, and th ex-govmmnt ministr Michael Heseltine, who likes th reports he gets to be very concise and suportd by visul aids. Anothr is Jackie Stewart th racing driver: he only found out wen he took his son for help with his extreme dificltis; Jackie Stewart himself cud presumably tel left from ryt! It is not uncomn for adults only to find out wen ther children ar diagnosed that dyslexia was also th reasn that they themselvs had had dificlty at scool, tho ther dificltis may hav been less severe. It has been sujestd that Leonardo da Vinci, Einstein and Rodin wer dyslexics; and Winston Churchill did not do very wel at scool. A lot of peple now say that they ar dyslexic, altho this may be a fashn that is being taken to extremes.
I hav taut in Adult Litracy, and I think that a great many of th adults in that sceme wer dyslexic, because ther reading and speling did not mach wat one new about them and th jobs that they wer doing: an electrician with th Gas Bord, sent for promotion because his practicl work was good, but unable to read th corse notes; a man ho wantd to be a fireman and passd al th exams exept th dictation; a forman baker of 15 years' standing ho cudnt spel th word bread - we taut him but he forgot again in th sumr holiday; a man ho wantd to be a golf professionl and cudnt pass th exams - he brot along his golfing manul for us to teach him; a Securicor gard, obviusly very capabl or he wud hav been unable to do his job; a man ho travld from Redhill to London evry day to recording studios and hose speling was apaling, tho he was capabl at his job; a self-employd plastrr; a man ho drove for a frozen-food firm and housewives gave him th cheqs to fil in! Ther was a hot-watr fitr ho actuly thot that he was going mad because he cud not undrstand wy ritn words did not make sense to him - he new he wasnt stupid, but his parents wer italian and they hadnt realized that he wasnt progressing at scool; th book Alpha to Omega was a revelation to him - previusly he had been trying to lern evry singl word sepratly, without undrstanding that they formd groups or wer in any way conectd with each othr, wich is somthing most of us lern in th norml process of becoming litrat.
How dyslexics react.How dos it feel to be dyslexic? Ther ar peple of lo intelijnce ho ar satisfyd with ther achevemnts and think they ar doing very wel, being unaware of ther dificltis. Dyslexics no they ot to be able to do betr and ar frustrated. Som of them try ten times hardr than othr peple to acheve th same results. I had an enquiry a fortnyt ago from th mothr of a boy ho had a place in a selectiv scool; he had been ther for six months and was having to work far hardr than evrybody else to keep up with wat he was suposed to be doing, and he was clearly not going to continu to do so for th next six years.
Som giv up and withdraw, or they develop behavior problms because they cant do th work. I was seing a boy of sevn and a haf in th sumr; he was intelijnt, with a quotient of 120 or so, but he cud not read or rite a singl word in a reading or speling test, and th scool put it down to behavior dificltis. Wudnt anyone hav behavior dificltis if they had been at scool for two or thre years and stil cudnt read or rite a word? Lak of intelijnce was not th obstacl.
Dyslexics hav very poor self-esteem. Th BDA has a video made by th Departmnt of Education and Sience about specific lerning dificltis - a cumbrsm frase within wich we include dyslexia; and in th video they use th term 'batrd ego', wich is a very good word for dyslexics.
I define dyslexia as 'a surprising, serius dificlty with litracy skils': surprising in vew of wat we no about th persn. Litracy problms ar unsurprising if ther ar extraneus factrs.
We ar consultd by parents with children of hom they ar expecting too much, altho such children may be slytly undracheving. With dyslexics we ar talking about children hose dificitis ar serius enuf to intrfere with ther progress. A slyt dificlty is not dyslexia. A comn definition of dyslexia is: achevemnt in reading or speling two years belo wat one wud expect for th persns verbl intelijnce levl.
That is oftn not esy for parents to undrstand. Obviusly a 2-year gap at th aje of 12 for somone of avraj intelijnce is manajbl: th 12-year-old with reading aje 10 can cope. But wen 8-year-olds hav a 2-year gap, with a reading and speling aje of 6, they ar preventd from acheving anything. So at difrnt ajes, a 2-year gap has difrnt implications.
Dyslexic caractristics.Usuly dyslexics sho certn caractristics, som of them wel-nown: dificltis of sequencing and direction, bizar speling, left/ryt confusion, etc. Som dyslexic children rite <b> as <d> because they forget th letr for th sound they hear, but othrs do not. Th chief criterion is a discrepncy between wat one wud normly expect and wat is actuly acheved. Many 5- and 6-year-olds myt spel bed as <d-e-b>, confusing <b> and <d>; but that dos not make them dyslexic. One only begins to suspect dyslexia if they hav not outgrown th confusion by th time they ar 7. If they ar of very lo intelijnce, they may persist with that confusion beyond th aje of 7.
Ther is a ranje of caractristics. Som dyslexics rite th corect letrs in th rong ordr, shoing sequencing dificltis; so they myt rite turn as <t-r-u-n>. Othrs represent th sounds in th ryt ordr, but with th rong letrs, perhaps riting turn as <t-e-r-n>, wich aftr al represents th ryt sound.
Dyslexics hav th oposit of a fotografic memry. Som peple claim to hav a fotografic memry, meaning that once they hav seen somthing, it is fixd in ther memry. But ther is a sliding scale of fotografic memry. Som peple remembr th visul apearance of words if they work very hard to do so. Othrs again hav enormus dificlty, howevr many times they ar shown th visul form of a word and howevr many times they practise riting it. Parents seem to want us to say that ther child is eithr dyslexic or not dyslexic. But th situation is not so simpl: ther is a graduated scale, just as among peple ho ar not dyslexic ther ar stil great difmces of visul memry and som hav to work at it mor than othrs.
Dyslexics dont esily jenrlize.Peple ho lern visuly dont lern th speling of evry singl english word individuly; they lern a few and they jenrlize from them. But dyslexics do not do this: they do not jenrlize even from th words they do lern. Teachrs ho rely on th 'look-and-say' method do not realize that most children jenrlize in this way, without being taut to do so.
I wil mention two exampls from my own children of how lernrs jenrlize without anyone being aware of it.
My son is of belo avraj intelijnce and has a quotient of about 80. He lernt to read by th 'look-and-say' method, late but quite esily: I taut him, with permission from th teachr at scool. Wen he was about 14 we went to France for a holiday. He didnt no any french, and he hadnt been taut any fonics at scool; but he saw th word soin on a shop, and pronounced it to rym with join. Now I had nevr taut him, and nor wud his scool hav don, that th digraf <oi> represents th vowl-sound in join; but he had made th jenrlization. So I askd him wat sound th digraf <aw> representd, and he thot of a word containing <aw>, and spoke th vowl concernd. Then I tryd him with th digraf wich I beleve is th hardst, <ew>, and he new that too.
Dyslexics find it extremely dificit to do that, and it is very hard to teach them to. Yet it is necesry. Wen they start scool, children hav a vocablry of somthing between five and ten thousnd words, and they canot posbly lern th ritn form of al those words individuly: they hav to jenrlize.
My dautr is at university studying sycolojy. She is two years yungr than my son, and wen I was teaching him and she was ajed about 4, she askd, "Wher is my reading book?". Aftr a few weeks she red th word catch independntly. I had not taut her any fonics; my sceme was to teach her as I had lernt to do at Colej, wich was to teach 60 syt words, and begin fonics aftr that. (But if I used this method with dyslexics, they wud nevr lern any words at al.) So I askd my dautr, "How do u no that word is catch?" She ansrd, "Wel, that's cat and that's ch." She had pikd up th <ch> for herself from words like chimney and church, but we dont realize that children ar doing this most of th time.
So: dyslexics hav a very weak powr of fotografic memry, and a very weak powr of jenrlization.
Causes of dyslexia.Wat is th reasn for dyslexia? it lies somwhere in th brain, but it has to do with brain function, not brain damaj. Ther is nothing mesurabl; somthing gos rong with th processing of input, memry and output. Somtimes it is late developmnt, late maturing. At Aston University they thot that th two hemisferes of th brain wer too even, insted of one side of th brain being domnnt. Som said that th languaj side of th brain dos not develop in dyslexics as it dos in othr peple - wich is not to say that it develops rongly, but rathr just difrntly (it was Geschwind  ho said that ryt-braind peple hav a great deal to ofr). Ther is a sujestion now that in th layrs of th brain, as they ar formd befor birth, dyslexics hav slyt lumps or nodules wich othr peple do not hav. Since ther is obviusly som dificlty with disecting dyslexics' brains, that idea has stil to be proven.
Tru dyslexia runs in famlis, it is hereditry. But environmentl factrs also play a part: a parent ho dosnt read wil discuraj th child from reading. If th fathr dosnt read because he is dyslexic, and th son dosnt read eithr, is that heredity or environmnt? We think both. But unless brain-damaj at birth causes dyslexic caractristics, one always finds othr membrs of th famly ho ar also dyslexic. I hav testd thre dyslexic children ho ar cusns, but with difrnt parents, som of th parents being dyslexic too. I hav one famly wher fathr is dyslexic and hose thre children, two boys and a girl, ar too. Th famly also has 1-year-old twin boys - so wat must ther chances be of being dyslexic? Dyslexia is particulrly comn in twins, and it is four times mor comn in boys than in girls, so th chances must be very hy.
How many Dyslexics?How many dyslexics ther ar in th population is a very vexd question: it depends wher th line is drawn and ho is included. Estimats vary between 2% and 20%. If one is looking at dyslexics for reserch purposes, one wil exclude those of lo intelijnce, those with slyt brain damaj, those with agravating circmstnces in ther environmnt. But for th practicl purpose of teaching, they al hav to be included too.
I had a pupil hose father was scizofrenic and batrd both mothr and son. Th mothr divorced and remarrid. They moved to Wales, and th boy entrd a welsh-speaking scool - but then returnd to England and had furthr chanjes of scool. Th famly livd with in-laws for a wile. Th boys ys ar lyt-sensitiv and he sufrs from migrain. Th scool attributed his poor litracy to al these agravating circmstnces. But th mothr is very dyslexic, th boys dificltis wer those of a classic dyslexic, and he now atends a scool for Specific Lerning Dificltis. Th scool is teaching him to read, but has acceptd that his poor speling is cronic and that he wil nevr spel acuratly; but u can read evrything he rites because I hav taut him exlnt fonics. For reserch purposes this boy is not dyslexic, altho for practicl purposes he is. Those ho say that 2% of th population ar dyslexic will exclude him; but those ho estimate 10 or 15% include him.
Most peple concernd with dyslexia wud probbly say that 4% of th population hav very serius dyslexic dificitis wich require specialist tuition, wile anothr 6% on th graduated scale of dificlty wil eithr nevr be noticed, or work extra hard, or wil survive with very good teaching, or wil always undr-acheve. Th figur I am inclined to use is 10%. Th 1981 Education Act spoke of 20% of children in scools with special educationl needs at som point during ther atendnce at scool. Al th children I cal dyslexic wud be in that 20% of children with special educationl needs. Somtimes th Education Authoritis use th frase 'Specific Lerning Dificltis' insted of dyslexia, but it is too complicated for many children, ho find th word 'dyslexia' mor manajbl.
Now is dyslexia diagnosed?Th first test for dyslexia is wethr ther is a discrepncy between verbl intelijnce and th reading and speling aje. One then looks at th areas of dificlty: is th child making typicl dyslexic mistakes? Here ar som exampls.
This was ritn by a non-dyslexic 11-year-old of lo ability, and contains wat myt be cald 'ignorance mistakes'.
Next is one ritn by a hy-ability 9-year-old dyslexic.
These spelings ar good, and sho that th child has thot hard about how to spel these words: griler for gorilla, damdoo and banboo for bamboo, browcen for broken. Th child has lisnd to th sound and tryd to represent it very carefuly.
Next is an exampl of a dyslexic childs riting wich is practicly perfect, not because I had been able to teach her perfection, but because she kept to safe and dul words wich she new she cud spel. She therfor did not present as a dyslexic, but she had an IQ of 120, and at th aje of 8 she shud hav been riting much mor intresting things.
One looks at handriting and reading, but watevr othr weaknesss one may succeed in helping dyslexics corect, speling remains a dificlty. They may hav dificlty with labeling, in recalling th names of things. So if they confuse th words left and right, they may be confusing not th two directions, but rathr th words that ar aplicbl in a givn case. That also causes them problms in Mathmatics.
Dificlty with sequencing causes dyslexics problms with th alfabet and therfor with th dictionry. Of corse, if they canot spel a word, they oftn canot find it in th dictionry: it is no use looking up city undr <s>. One canot say to dyslexic children, "Look in th dictionry": even if they found th ryt word, they wudnt always hav a good enuf visul memry to recognize it. They may find it hard to just recite th days of th week or th months of th year, nevr mind speling them; similrly with teling th time, foloing directions, and with short-term memry. They may com up to ask th teachr somthing, but by th time they get ther, they hav forgotn wat they wer going to ask: ther question hasnt gon into long-term memry.
Remediation.One canot asume that dyslexics wil lern anything that othr children pik up mor esily. Wat is needd is a structurd, multisensry program, acording to th childs specific needs: seing a word, saying it, hearing it and riting it, so that al th senses contribute to th lerning. Somtimes th dyslexic child wil hav a much betr auditry ability than visul ability. One pupil, wen trying to rite a word, says th sounds out loud, and wil pik up his mistakes from hearing wat he says, rathr than from wat he actuly rites and ses.
Th program has to be progressiv and bild up, always refering bak and bilding on wat has been don befor. Teachrs may concentrate on words containing <aw> one day, but it wil be litl use if they do not point out how th same sound is spelt in or, a word th pupil has met befor. A program like this wil teach th most comn speling of th sound, as in or, erly on; and then wen one reachs th othr spelings for that vowl, <aw, au> etc, one has to make th link and point out that th pupil has alredy lernt anothr way of speling it. Wen pupils ar taut most spelings in scool by list aftr list of words, th difrnt spelings previusly lernt for th corespondnces currently undr discussion ar nevr related.
Dyslexics ar al difrnt, wich makes th condition particulrly hard to undrstand. If parents hav red Susan Hampshires biografy,  they may falsely conclude that ther child is not dyslexic because he/she shos difrnt problms. One boy is strugling to sort out bed and head and red/read, and ther ar dyslexics at university, even post-graduat reserch students, ho hav had to work far hardr than othr students to get that far: th problm strechs ryt across th ability ranje. It canot be cured, it dos not disapear; one can remediate, one can improve, one can inspire self-confidnce, one can teach stratejis, one can pik out th weaknesss that matr most; but th basic problm wil always persist in speling.
Readbility paramount.A university student in a letr home made som mistakes wich wud be fairly typicl of dyslexics and wich sho he has not got a good visul memry for wat words look like, altho wat he rites is quite readbl. So he rites:
|(these wud hav been helpd by Cut Speling), and these othrs:|
I hav one pupil now hose mistakes I do not corect, provided th spelings ar readbl. I only intrvene wen they ar incomprehensbl. In fact many recognisebl mispelings wud be solvd if th ritng systm as a hole wer sirnplifyd.
A Mathmatics teachr once said, "Maths has to be exact, but English can be aproximat - as long as it's readbl." Wen he said that, som 6 or 7 years ago, I was very anoyd; but now I accept it - tho he was rong about th Mathmatics, since they now teach estimation! Ther ar a great many mistakes in ritn english wich dont matr because u can undrstand wat is ment and react apropriatly; but one has to bothr about th things that cant be red at al.
Th British Dyslexia Association.Th umbrela orgnization in th UK is th British Dyslexia Association. [See links.] Th Dyslexia Institute at Staines is one corprat membr, and ther ar now quite a numbr of dyslexia centrs, such as th Helen Arkell Dyslexia Centr, al afiliated to th BDA. I work for th South East Surrey Dyslexia Association, wich is one of 3 Dyslexia Associations within Surrey, an LEA area. Altogethr ther ar about 60 afiliated local asociations, and som scools ar corprat membrs.
POINTS RASED IN DISCUSSION.1. Nomenclatur. Th term 'dyslexia' is frownd on in som quartrs, and it is strictly speaking naroer in meaning than th frase 'Specific Lerning Dificltis'. Howevr in practice it is th same children we ar concernd with. Many othr terms hav also been tryd, such as 'Specific Reading Dificltis'.
2. Problms of vision. It has been sujestd that th root cause of dyslexia myt be purely visul, but in fact this is merely one of th posbl extraneus factrs wich can afect a childs ability to lern to read and rite. Obviusly, if a childs ys dont perceve corectly, or if they ar sensitiv to wite lyt, or ther ys do not coordinate proprly, any of these problms is going to intrfere with th aquisition of litracy skils, and can agravate th particulr problms of dyslexia.
3. Use of computers. We find computers ar exlnt in teaching dyslexics.
4. Simplifyd speling systms. Systms hav been sujestd for using simplifyd speling to teach dyslexics, but th systms too esily disagree with each othr. So Max Gibb wil use <ah> for th sound of are, wile anothr wil use <ar>. But if ther is no agreemnt, we shant make any progress in that direction.
5. Efect of teaching methods on dyslexics. Th methods used in scools for teaching non-dyslexic children can afect th kind of problms that dyslexic children hav. Those ho hav been taut by th fonic method and hav lernt to work out th sounds of words ar likely to represent th pronunciation corectly, altho they may use th rong letrs (e.g. tern for turn). On th othr hand, a teachr using th 'look-and-say' may emphasize th apearance of turn, but th dyslexic child is then likely to rite <t-r-u-n>, with th corect letrs but th rong ordr. Th 'look-and-say' method deprives th dyslexic child of the auditry dimension, wich can in fact be of great asistnce. Simplifyd speling wud help a lot.
6. Dyslexia in othr languajs? Quite a numbr of cuntris ar aware of th problm of dyslexia: ther is a European Dyslexia Association, LD organizations in th USA, Australia and elsewhere and we hav just had th first Intrnationl Dyslexia Confrnce. [See links.] Howevr, th mor regulr th riting systm of th languaj, th less serius th problm.
7 i.t.a. for dyslexics. Altho th Initial Teaching Alfabet is a very regulr systm, th chanjeover to Traditionl Orthografy (TO) wud rase special problms for dyslexics. I taut in a Junior Scool hose Infants Scool took up i.t.a., and I was th remedial teachr in th Junior Scool, wher it was my job to take th children ho had not completed th i.t.a. sceme thru to th end of it. I wud hav a group of perhaps 10, and it was absolutely marvelus: they wer al reading. Howevr ther was one thing that I did not discovr. In those days, I taut reading and not speling, as ther was no time for speling. As far as th childrens reading was concernd, they transferd to TO butifuly; but I do not no wethr th transfer was equaly successful for ther speling. And that is wat woris me about i.t.a. for dyslexics: they hav imense dificlty in grasping one systm, so how wud they cope with chanjing to a difrnt systrn? I fear that altho i.t.a. has many advantajs, if dyslexics once lernt it, they wud nevr stop speling in th i.t.a. way, and that myt not be acceptbl: probbly they wud later hav teachrs who wud say th i.t.a. spelings wer rong.
Anothr advantaj of i.t.a. was that it was taut methodicly and delibratly, and teachrs actuly considrd wat they wer teaching and how they wer teaching it. One of th reasns for its success was that th teachrs considrd th method of teaching and did not expect th children to pik it up by osmosis. Howevr John Downings experimnts showd that even wen any such difrnce in method and atitude of th teachr was alowd for, th i.t.a. medium stil proved itself superir. But one must hav reservations for dyslexics if it wer felt to be unacceptbl for them to continu to use i.t.a. for th rest of ther lives.
8. Wat spelings wud most benefit dyslexics? One myt also considr th reverse problm: that if dyslexics wer taut to rite in a fuly regulrized, fonemic speling systm, th result myt be reasnbly acceptbl, because at least othr peple wud be able to interpret wat th dyslexics had ritn; problms howevr wud be mor likely with reading, because th dyslexics wud stil hav to be able to read text that was ritn in non-simplifyd spelng by othr peple.
Wethr this problm arose wud depend on th simplifyd speling used. If dyslexics cud initialy be taut by using multisensry methods both to read and to rite a simplifyd speling systm that was visuly very similr to TO, then reading TO shud not be too dificlt for them. So, for instnce, dyslexics shud find it esy enuf to read TO aggravate if they hav lernt the simplifyd form agravate, and they shud be able to read friend if they hav lernt th simplifyd form frend, in exactly th same way as most peple dont notice many of th speling mistakes that ar constntly being made al around them. So providing th simplifyd systm that th dyslexics were taut was not too drasticly difrnt from TO, ther shud be no grounds for concern.
9. Dyslexia and Cut Speling If dyslexics wer therfor taut Cut Speling (CS), wich just omits th misleading redundnt letrs from TO, they probbly wudnt even notice th difrnce between CS and TO. On th othr hand, it wud be confusing for them if letrs wer actuly chanjed, as for instnce if they wer taut always to rite <j> for soft <g>, but stil had to be able to read soft <g> in TO: if they wer taut th form juj, they wud be defeatd by judge.
I hav shown th leaflets about CS to many peple, with very varying responses. Th parents of th dyslexics hom I teach heved a sy of relief and said, "Wat a good idea". Take th CS sentnce, "Hav som mor": that is exactly how dyslexics rite. It is tru that they natrly tend to rite som as sum, but they wud find it esir to lern to rite som (wich wud enable them to read TO some) than to lern th ful TO form. It is a question of how much misleading information dyslexics can cope with, and som contains less misleading information than some, wile not looking drasticly difrnt.
 Bevé Hornsby & Frula Shear Alpha to Omega, Heinemann, 1975.
 N Geschwind, remark made on TV.
 Susan Hampshire Susan's Story, Sidgwick & Jackson, 1981.
T R Miles Understanding Dyslexia, Hodder & Stoughton, 1974 ('Teach Yourself' edition, 1978).
British Dyslexia Assocation. See links.
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