[Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society, 25, 1999/1 pp11-15]

Spelling and Literacy in Finnish.

Colin Davies.

foto of Dr Colin Davies. Dr Davies lived and worked in Finland during the 1950s and 60s, and got to know the language reasonably well; but having only spent a month in Finland in the past 25 years, he begs indulgence for any errors this may have given rise to. Later, he worked for the Open University, and obtained a Ph.D. in ultrasonics. He believes English spelling to be the most difficult subject that he has attempted to learn.

0. Abstract.

Finnish is spelt exactly as it is pronounced, and is pronounced exactly as it is spelt. The rules for Finnish spelling are given, and it is shown, with examples, that English could be spelt using the same rules. Consonantal gradation in Finnish and English is explained, and its implications for spelling are discussed, as are the different reactions of Finnish and English speakers to the resulting alteration of words. Questions about the teaching of reading in Finland are answered by an expert from the University of Helsinki, who also confirms that the concept of 'spelling' to a Finn means by syllable rather than by letter as in English. Some examples of written Finnish are given to show the effects of case endings.

1. The predictability of Finnish spelling.

Once you grasp the basic idea of how Finnish works, it is an easy language to teach yourself from books, because there is never any doubt about how to pronounce words. You just follow the rules, and you will be right every time. It has long occurred to me that English could be spelt using the same system, and introducing a Welsh DD. Some advantages would be:

1.1. It is much simpler, and so quite quick to learn.

2.2. There would be no further doubt as to the correct pronunciation of words like kilometre, controversy, harassment, subsidence, Pisces, cervical, Fresnel-lens, mandatory, sauna, metallurgist, homogenous / homogeneous and plenty more.

1.3. It would enrich the language; eg, it would show that we have plurals in /z/ as well as /s/, and a different definite (as well as indefinite) article before a vowel as opposed to a consonant, and that English speech uses consonantal gradation. On the other hand, there would be no heterographs; thus in Finnish kuusi can mean either 'six' or 'spruce tree', but there is no possibility of spelling them differently.

The rules of Finnish spelling are as follows:
A letter in Finnish has one sound only, irrespective of its position in a word. A doubled letter lengthens that sound; this applies to consonants as well as vowels. (The lengthened pronunciation of consonants is known as 'gemination'.) Words are spelt exactly as pronounced, and pronounced exactly as spelt. This is very precise indeed. So, for example, mato 'worm' is not pronounced the same as matto 'carpet'; kisoissa 'in the games' is not pronounced the same as kissoissa 'in the cats', although few ears trained on English can hear any difference. Furthermore, neither koko 'all', nor kokko 'midsummer night bonfire' rhyme with the English words cocoa or Morocco.

A sentence like Kokoo kokoon koko kokon kokko 'Collect together all the fuel for the midnight fire' is pronounced exactly as written, giving equal value to each letter.

2. Rules of Finnish spelling.

2.1. Consonants.
Finnish uses the consonant letters D G H J K L M N P R S T V, although others may appear in foreign loan words. Combinations of consonants (digraphs) do not normally occur except in NG (the only use of G).

The consonants have almost the same sounds as in English except for J, which is sounded as Y in Yes. NK and NG are sounded as in English sinking.

The lack of a B means that most Finnish ears cannot distinguish, eg, Big Ben from pig pen. Nor can they distinguish between shoes, choose and juice, and as they always stress the first syllable, they tend to pronounce interpret as interbreed.

There seems no reason why more consonants and combinations of them should not be used for writing English by Finnish rules.

2.2. Vowels.
Finnish uses A E I O U Y Ä Ö. They occur alphabetically in that order. A, O, Ä, Ö are regarded as completely different letters, and Ä and Ö come at the end of the alphabet. I have discussed this with Mr Lyytikäinen (see below) and we decided that while the Scandinavian and Finnish letters Ä and Ö must have had their origins in German, the German name for the two dots, Umlaut, is not used in Scandinavia or Finland.

Using a BBC-type southern English pronunciation as a guide
Finnish A sounds as the U in English hut (hat); AA as the A in part (paat);
E as in met; EE as in air, care, pear (ee, kee, pee);
I as in sit; II as in feet, meat, sea (fiit, miit, sii);
O as in pot; OO as in port, caught, bought (poot, koot, boot);
U as in put; UU as in shoe, who, slew (shuu, huu, slu);
Y as in French tu, a sound that does not occur in standard English (neither does YY);
Ä as in hat; ÄÄ I think only occurs in English local dialects;
Ö as in the before a consonant (schwa);
ÖÖ as in hurt, sir, earn (hööt, söö, öön).
Combinations of vowels sound as if the two individual vowels are spoken in quick sequence. Many of these sounds only occur in English local dialects, but in BBC southern English there are:
AI as in pipe, life, while (paip, laif, wail);
AU as in cow, house, sauna (kau, haus, sauna - the latter is the correct pronunciation);
EI as in mate, weight/wait, lake (meit, weit, leik);
OI as in boil, noise, boys (boil, noiz, boiz)
OU as in pole, coal, odour (poul, koul, oudör).
ÄY, ÖY, YÖ, and perhaps a few others don't seem to occur in southern English speech, but I did know a northerner with a fiancee he called föiböi (=Phoebe).

Once the rules are known, any Finnish word can be spelt correctly, or pronounced correctly from writing.

3. Finnish rules applied to English.

The same basic rules could equally be applied to produce a delightfully easy spelling system for English, with English J, Y and consonant digraphs, and a Welsh DD for the voiced TH, /ð/.

Ddö seim beisik ruulz kud iikwöli bii öplaid tu prödyuus ö dilaitfuli iizi speling sistöm foor Inglish, widd Inglish J, Y änd konsönönt daigraafs, änd ö Welsh Dd foo ddö voukälaizd TH.

Lauri Hakulinen (1981) in The Structure and development of the Finnish Language says the vowel Ö is the least used (1% of all usage). In English it (ie, schwa) is the commonest sound, but instead of a special symbol to reflect its importance, English uses any one of the other vowels at random. If we are going for phonetic spelling, we had better find a substitute for Ö that is quicker to write, and has no dots on top.

Here are two sample texts used by the Simplified Spelling Society. They show how I pronounce English; people with other accents might write them differently.
Oud tuu ö Naitingeil / Ode to a Nightingale
(Jon Kiits / John Keats)
Mai haat eiks, and a drauzi namnis peinz
Mai sens, az ddou ov hemlok ai häd drank,
Oo emptid sam dal oupiöt tuu ddö dreinz
Wan minit paast, and Liithiwoodz häd sank:
Tiz not thruu envi ov ddai häpi lot,
Bat biiing tuu häpi in ddain häpinis,
Ddät ddau, lait-wingid Draiäd ov ddö triiz,
In sam möloudivs plot
Ov biichön griin, änd shädouz nambölis,
Singist ov samö in ful-throutid iiz.

Fazi-oupeik Oothögräfiköl Vizhönz /
Fuzzy-opaque Orthographical Visions
(Kristöför Apwörd / Christopher Upward)
Ddee woz ö poo boi kudönt spel
Haaf ddö wöödz in auö längwij tuu wel.
Hiz tiichöz thoot: "Brein-sik!"
Mam änd Däd houpd: "Disleksik?"
Yet ddö chaild räshli jiiöd: "Wot ddö hel!"

4. Consonant gradation & vowel harmony.

I don't expect to see the Finnish writing system used in England without a dictator such as an English Atatürk. However, if we had such a system, we would have to decide our policy on what the Finns call aste vaihtelu. This means 'consonantal gradation', and occurs in English a little, and in Finnish a great deal.

A word like ranta 'shore' has the adessive form rannalla 'on the shore'. The /t/ drops out and the /n/ doubles, but the point to emphasize is that these sound changes are always followed by the spelling. Puhelin 'telephone' has the inessive form puhelimessa 'on the phone', in the sense of speaking on the phone. The /n/ sound becomes an /m/, and is written that way.

This sort of thing is the rule rather than the exception in Finnish, but it does occur in English. Obvious examples are words like leaf and sheaf, where the /f/ sound becomes a /v/ in the plural. These are obvious because the spelling follows the sound (leaves, sheaves), but other examples where the spelling does not follow the sound come to mind: lecture, which has the same root as lecturn, but has unnecessarily retained the written T. Similarly a large number of nouns like attraction, disruption, and direction keep the written T from their verbs. The final /s/ sound in house becomes /z/ in the plural, the final TH sound in bath becomes a Welsh DD sound in the plural, and as pointed out by Cornell Kimball (1998), the /z/ sound in advertise changes to an /s/ in advertisement. He seems to see this /z > s/ shift as a problem; I don't. But would people be prepared to see these changes reflected in the spelling of words?

Finnish allows no exceptions: proper nouns get the full treatment too. Alavus is the name of a village; 'at Alavus' is Alavudella (adessive case). Helsingiss ä means 'in Helsinki' (inessive case) - the /k/ sound has become a /g/, and that's how they write it.

Likewise with people: 'the music of Sibelius' is Sibeliuksen musiikki. The Finnish for 'wolf' is susi, which is also a common surname. A Mr Wolf in England might resent hearing his family described as 'the Wolves', but Mr Susi would not notice anything untoward. For example the Finns would say and write:

Mr Susi's book
I don't know Mr Susi
I don't like Mr Susi
Mr Susi has the book
Herra Suden kirja (genitive)
En tunne Herra Sutta (partitive)
En pidä Herra Sudesta (elative)
Herra Sudella on kirja (adessive)

Finnish words also have vowel harmony. This means that the front vowels Y Ä Ö cannot occur in the same word (unless it is a compound) as the back vowels A O U, though the front vowels E and I can go with either group. So Ä, Ö contrast with A, O in forming a front/back switch in vowel harmony. Thus, 'in Helsinki' is Helsingissä, because Helsinki has no A, O or U, so is a front vowel word requiring a final Ä. 'In Lahti' is Lahdessa with final A, as the stem contains A and is thus a back vowel word. Similarly, on means 'it is', and onko? with final O means 'is it?'; but the front vowel word käy meaning 'it goes' becomes käykö? 'does it go?' with final Ö, not O.

5. Literacy in Finnish.

When I was living in Finland, I was told that all Finns could read and write unless they were mentally defective. The only article I've been able to find on the subject of learning to read in Finland was by Hannele Branch. She writes: "(learning to read) was enforced in a very effective way. One could be married only by the church. To be granted permission to marry, one had to know by heart the main articles of faith of the Lutheran church, and furthermore, one had to pass a reading test. As a result of this programme, Finland today claims 100 percent literacy." (Branch 1984).

To get more information, I wrote to the Head of the Finnish Language Department of the University of Helsinki, and asked if anyone could help me with the answers to various questions. I had some very helpful replies from: Erkki Lyytikäinen, amanuenssi, Helsingin yliopiston suomen kielen laitos 'research assistant, Finnish language department of the University of Helsinki'. Mr. Lyytikäinen said that it was extremely interesting to hear that an institution like the Simplified Spelling Society operated in England. "All in all, it is exciting to know that even in England people are having such heretical ideas about their orthography."

Here are my questions and Mr Lyytikäinen's replies as well as I can translate them. In this respect, I should point out that the Finnish word Englanti can refer to the whole island; the Finns never use a word for Britain. The word hän can mean she or he; there are no genders in Finnish. Book language is a literal translation of kirjakieli; it seems to mean the officially accepted correct language.

Q1. Can you provide me with information on the development of written Finnish? Can you tell me how the spelling system was devised, and whether it has been updated over time?

A1. The 'book language' was born around the beginning of the 1500s; the initiator was the religious reformer Mikael Agricola. The orthography was entirely foreign, close to the styles of Swedish and German. One sound had many ways of writing it, and one letter represented many different sounds: in that way it resembled modern English. From this starting point, things slowly moved towards the modern phonetic way of writing. There were no sudden breakthroughs. The first translation of the Bible appeared in 1642, and used a much improved spelling system compared with that of Agricola's time.

One must take note that not much literature in the Finnish language had appeared until the beginning of the 1800s. The 'book language' appeared in its modern form in a short period, within fifty years at the end of the 1800s, at which time the language was taken into use alongside Swedish as a true language of culture. At this time there was born, amongst other things, a copious vocabulary, and a correct orthography was established. From around 1880, the spelling system was about the same as it is today.

Q2. How long does it normally take for Finnish schoolchildren to learn to read and write? Are they taught phonics, or are they taught to recognize the look of a word as a whole?

A2. Schoolchildren learn to read and write during their first school year. Of course there are large individual differences, but in general, that is how it is. The teaching operates so that at first the names of the letters are taught. After that the children are taught to form syllables from the letters, and words from the syllables. The look of a word as such is not taken into account during primary teaching. I am not an expert on this subject; I have the feeling that during an earlier period of education there were experiments in recognizing the basic look of a word in the teaching of reading, but this scheme was abandoned.

Q3. Nykysuomensanakirja (Dictionary of Modern Finnish) (1966) indicates that tavata means 'to syllablize', rather than 'to spell'. And tavaus translates in Alanne's dictionary (1956) as 'spelling by syllables'. This suggests that there is no other way of spelling that a Finn might discuss or consider. Nykysuomensanakirja also makes the point that in foreign, but especially English language situations, tavata means 'to enumerate from letter to letter how a word is written'. This suggests that the concept of spelling as the English speaker thinks of it, is not something that Finns normally come across, unless they are dealing with non-Finnish matters. Do you agree, and can you comment further?
(In the following answer, tavaaminen is a sort of gerund of tavata, which means to spell in the Finnish syllable sense. Talo means 'house', talossa means 'in a house'.)
A3. The spelling or tavaaminen puzzle. You have interpreted the situation quite correctly. Tavaaminen to a Finn is indeed the enumeration of a word from one syllable to another. Once the letters have been mastered, children are immediately taught in the way I explained in A1 above. I will tavata now the Finnish word talo: tee, aa, ta-; äl, oo, -lo; talo. (Tee, aa, äl and oo are the Finnish names for the letters.) In the same way the word talossa: tee, aa, ta-; äl, oo, äs, -los-; talos; äs, aa, -sa; talossa. This is classical Finnish tavaaminen or tavaus. In letter enumeration situations, for example using the English word 'spell', a Finn does not really think in terms of the word tavata. So the English request "Spell your name please" would be translated into Finnish as "Please indicate the letters of your name", or "Please say your name letter by letter". Tavaaminen does not seem the right word in this situation. Perhaps it is because tavaaminen is more of a children's affair. To ask an adult to tavata something seems mildly insulting. This (discussion) has certainly gone a long way into the interpretation of nuances between languages.
(Answer 3 suggests to me that Finnish might alternatively be written as a syllabary like Japanese 'Kana'. [See McGuinness pp80]).
Q4. I also wonder how Finnish people think about spelling; do they ever think about it?

A4. My impression is that Finns just don't think about tavaaminen or spelling. The need only crops up when reading and writing in foreign languages.

Q5. How do Finns who speak local dialects cope with spelling? Eg, glasspaper is pronounced glaaspeipö in the south of England, and gläspeepö in the north. Clerk is klaak in England, but klöörk in America, and we say clock as klok, but Americans say klaak. This sort of thing, the argument goes, makes phonetic spelling impossible in English. However, I noticed that in Finland, the letter D is often pronounced as an L in Häme, a T in Karelia, and an R in the west.

A5. I admit I have never thought of this! This is really weird (and hardly to my credit!) because I have worked with dialects for the greater part of my adult life. It is all thanks and honour to you that I have now hit this problem. Everything I say now on this matter is merely my intuition after mulling it over; I have no firm academic information on this subject.

To put it briefly, I don't think a dialect speaker ever tries to take a stand on tavaaminen, so no problem arises. Please bear in mind the difference between the Finnish tavata and the English 'spell'; tavaaminen is the formation and enumeration of syllables. The Finnish syllable is usually the first step in the phoneme analysis of the language, it is the examination of the frame of the language, and - note this - it only applies to the 'book language'. A person gets into the way of tavaaminen quite normally when learning to read. Tavaaminen is an expedient, an intermediate stage to full reading ability, and to a person who has attained reading ability, tavaaminen is of no further consequence. Teaching material is always in the 'book language', so that tavaaminen is officially under the governance and control of the 'book language'. For speaking, tavaaminen is of no relevance. If for example a listener does not clearly hear what another has said, s/he (hän) asks for it to be repeated. And the other repeats it as many times as is needed for understanding. That is, s/he (hän) repeats the whole unclear sequence. In spoken language one never asks: "spell the word please".
(Diane McGuinness, in her book Why Children Can't Read, claims that there is no such thing as dyslexia, only bad teaching. So I asked Mr Lyytikäinen about it.)
Q6. 'Dyslexia' is a condition that is commonly cited when English children have difficulty in learning to read. Chambers Dictionary defines 'dyslexia' as: "Word blindness, great difficulty in learning to read or spell, of which the cause (not lack of intelligence) has not been established." I cannot find a Finnish translation of 'dyslexia'; does it occur in Finland, or is it an English disease?

A6. Dyslexia is indeed not unknown in Finland either. One may see this Greek-based word in scientific articles, but generally the term lukihäiriö (reading/writing disturbance) is used. Formerly, the expression 'word blindness' was used, but it was given up because of inexactness. Lukihäiriös are of many degrees, severe or mild, and they appear in all types of school pupils. In undergraduate writings, that is, after leaving school, one can in some circumstances notice a slight reduction in the students' level of performance as a result of lukihäiriö. In general, without getting too specific, I do say that of course some Finnish school children have some difficulties in learning to read. I am not an expert in this field, but I imagine that their difficulties are minor compared with difficulties in the rest of the world. Dyslexics of course have their own specific problems, but, leaving them aside, first year school children learn to read largely without difficulty.
(It is here worth mentioning that, as reported in JSSS J19 1995/2 [esp. p6, §5, and the table on p7], that Finland has repeatedly appeared in top position in international tables of literacy achievement.)

6. Further points of discussion.

Mr. Lyytikäinen suggested I contact Pirjo Sinko who is Counsellor of Education on the National Board of Education. So I wrote to her asking about dyslexia in Finland. She has supplied me with a considerable amount of information, and Jean Hutchins of the Simplified Spelling Society has sent me a copy of Lyytinen's (1997) chapter on dyslexia in Finland.

Both Pirjo Sinko and Heikki Lyytinen say very much the same thing about Finnish dyslexia. Abbreviating what Pirjo Sinko writes:

"Yes indeed, there is dyslexia in Finland, just like anywhere else. I don't believe that it can in any way depend on any specific language, but certainly there are differences in the way it manifests itself. Adding to our problem is the fact that most of the information on the subject comes from the English-speaking world, and the way our Finnish problems manifest themselves is different from those of English.

"The estimates of the extent of lukivaikeus (reading/writing difficulty) vary considerably. According to the most specific estimates they affect 6-7% of the population, but if the field is widened to take in general understanding and learning difficulties, one easily reaches 20%.

"Modern neurological investigations have shown that the brain's special methods of processing information are involved. Some parts of the brain operate more slowly and less well in a person with lukivaikeus than in 'a normal healthy person'. It is certain that not all difficulties in reading and writing or counting are examples of lukivaikeus though. Lukivaikeus occurs in people with all degrees of academic aptitude.

"Here it is sometimes said that lukivaikeus is not (just) a learning difficulty, but also a teaching difficulty, by which is meant that the teacher ought to be able to develop procedures which explicitly help the pupil who has problems of spatial cognition.

"Because the words in our Finnish language are long, neither a comprehensive system, and certainly not a national system, have become recommended for teaching reading. We generally use a mixture of methods, but the sound to letter correspondence method is a sound base for teaching."

I have also received a statement from Finnish TV presenter Airi Valkama who writes roughly as follows:

"I am myself lukihäiriönen ('read/write disturbed'). In my early school years letters and numbers appeared either glued together into an incomprehensible porridge, or they changed places among themselves. Lines jumped and disappeared. It made reading very laborious. Writing was difficult too."

This suggests to me that Diane McGuinness is oversimplifying the dyslexia problem.

Valerie Yule has written (20 May 1998) to make a few points on Finnish spelling. She says:

1. "The difficulties for beginners in reading and learning to read Finnish result from the word length and the phoneme-confusability of the spoken language.

"Finnish words tend to be remarkably long, often with seven or more syllables. Text in English would be 25% shorter than the same text in Finnish."

Certainly some words, such as the numbers, are very long. The numbers 1-12 are yksi, kaksi, kolme, neljä, viisi, kuusi, seitsemän, kahdeksan, yhdeksän, kymmenen, yksitoista, kaksitoista.

However, menin kirkkoon vaimoineeni with 24 letters in 3 words means "I went into the church with my wife", using 28 letters in 8 words. In a Finnish cinema, the subtitles go up in Finnish and Swedish, and it always seems to me that the Swedish subtitles take up more room than the Finnish.

2. "Critical differences between some Finnish phonemes are very small and hard for beginners to detect, with a large number of diphthongs and sliding vowels, eg, tule, tulee, tulle, tullee, tuule, tuulle and tuullee are all real words, with minor differences in pronunciation as well as spelling."

I have not identified all these words, but I think it wrong to describe the differences in pronunciation as 'minor'. They are pronounced differently, just as Jews, shoes, choose, juice are pronounced differently in English, though they cause problems for Finns who don't easily distinguish the sounds of S, J, SH, CH, Z.

Mr. Lyytikäinen saw Valerie Yule's letter, and wrote: "What she says about the length of Finnish words is true. But the average number of syllables in a word is surely under seven. In compound words of course syllables abound. But I find it hard to believe the length of a word as such would make learning to read difficult. Finnish spelling by syllables has the splendid feature that even a long word flashes into its separate letters and syllables, which then join up one after the other to form the word, quite mechanically."

From that I conclude that Finns learn to read by recognizing syllable patterns rather than whole words. In view of the twenty or thirty possible inflections that Finnish words go through, that is probably the best way, as 'whole word recognition' means that one would have to learn to recognize twenty or thirty times as many words as in other languages. I myself have to read Finnish from syllable to syllable, although I seem to recognize the most common variations of common words as a whole. If you have a page of Finnish text, you will (at a guess) only find about one word in five in a dictionary in the form in which it appears on the page. The rest will be inflected in some way.

However, Pirjo Sinko writes "We also have a problem for people with lukivaikeus in variations in the length of sounds, eg, tuli - tuuli - tulli ('fire' - 'wind' - 'Customs'). These timing mistakes are typical of people with lukivaikeus.

"The Finnish letter and sound correspondence is obviously easy for beginners of reading, but because our language (as opposed to English) gets a lot of information into one word, our words are long while english words are short, eg, talossammekaan 'even in our house'. As the concentration span of a person with lukivaikeus is short, reading Finnish is difficult for such people, and many of them guess word endings."

Christopher Upward has asked me:

1. To explain why Finnish looks so unlike other European languages.

I have read that the three commonest letters in Finnish are I, A, and Ä in that order. For English-speaking observers, who discount the dots, it looks as if A is the commonest letter instead of the E in English. There are words like vaaalla 'on the scales', kovaaääninen 'loudspeaker', hyvää päivää (a greeting like 'good day'), and names like Yrjö Häyhä or Terttu Häyhtiö which don't look like names at all to the non-Finn. First names like Väinö and Riitta have to be spelt with care; Vaino, Riita and Rita mean 'persecution', 'quarrel' and 'trap' respectively, and are not names to give a child. The rarity or absence of B, C, F, Q, W, X, Z, and the low usage of D and G add to the unexpected appearance. Finnish is a member of the Finno-Ugrian group of languages, and has little in common with the Indo-European languages (which comprise the great majority of European languages), the appearance of which is more familiar to us.

2. To include some Finnish text including familiar place names like New York.

So how about: "Mennään meritse New Yorkista Lontooseen" 'Let's go by sea from New York to London' (meritse is the prolative case of meri 'sea'). Menimme ooperaan Pariisissa kun olimme Ranskassa 'we went to the opera in Paris while we were in France'. Hän meni Uudesta Seelannista Australiaan, ja takaisin Uuteen Seelantiin 's/he went from New Zealand to Australia and back to New Zealand' (Uusi Seelanti 'New Zealand', with the S becoming T in the illative and D in the elative cases.


Alanne, V.S. (1956) Finnish-English Dictionary. Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. Porvoo ja Helsinki. Suomi/Finland.

Branch, Hannele (1984) The Finnish Language. Finnish Language and Culture. Guide:8. London (Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research).

Branch, Michael (1987) Finnish. Ed. Bernard Comrie The World's Major Languages. London, Sydney (Croom Helm), pp593-617.

Hakulinen, Lauri (1981) (tr. John Atkinson) The Structure and Development of Finnish. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Uralic and Altaic Series 3.

Kimball, Cornell (1998) Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. J23 1998/1, pp14-18.

Lyytinen, Heikki (1997) Recognition and remediation of dyslexia in Finland. eds. Salter, Robin & Smythe, Ian The International Book of Dyslexia. London: World Dyslexia Network Foundation, pp64-68.

McGuinness, Diane (1997) Why Children Can't Read London: Penguin.

Nykysuomensanakirja (1966). Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. Porvoo ja Helsinki. Suomi/Finland.

Upward, Christopher (1995) Orthografy vs Litracy: Findngs of th IEA Survey. JSSS, J19 1995/2, pp5-8.

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