(JSSS 4 1987-1 pp22-25)
Back to Part 1, Part 2, vowels arranged alfabetically and consonants.

Heterographs in English Part 3.

Christopher Upward

4 LIST OF HETEROGRAPHS.

4.1 Vowels differently spelt - arranged by phoneme. Sets of heterographs are listed in 14 numbered lists, according to which vowel is differently spelt. The phoneme-analysis is basically RP simplified by the merger of several phonemes into single columns, as represented by the following key words:

1. ale, 2. at/pass/art, 3. eel, 4. let/air, 5. eye/fire. 6. it.ear, 7. oat, 8. owl.our, 9. or/all/lot/oil, 10. rue, 11. put, 12. but, 13. fur, 14 shwa.

1. ale.
ail:ale -s
(bade?):bayed
bail:bale -s d ing
baize:bays 2
base:bass -s 2
based:baste 2
bay:bey -s
braid:brayed
braise:brays:braze
brake:break -s ing
chased:chaste 2
daisies:dazes
Dane:deign -s
days:daze 2
fain:feign
faint:feint -s d ing
fate:fete -s d
fays:faze -s d ing:phase -s d ing 3
fiancé:fiancée
frays:phrase 2
Gael:gale -s
gage:gauge -s d ing
gait:gate -s
gays:gaze 2
grayed US/greyed:grade
grate:great -s r
grays US/greys:graze 2hail:hale -r
hay:heigh:hey
(J:jay)
lain:lane
lair:layer -s?)
lays:laze 2
maid:made
mail:male -s
main:mane -s
maize:maze
nay:née:neigh -s,
pail:pale -s
pain:pane -s
place:plaice
plain:plane -s
praise:prays:preys
pray:prey -d ing
raid:rayed
rain:reign:rein -s d ing
raise -s d ing:rays:rase/raze -s d ing 2
ray:re/ray
sail:sale -s
shake:sheik/h -s
slay:sleigh -s
spade:spayed
staid:stayed
stake:steak -s
straight:strait -s
suède:swayed 2
tail:tale -s
trait:tray -s
vale:veil -s
vain:vane -s:vein -s
wade:weighed
wail:whale -s d ing 2
wain:wane -s
waist:waste
wait:weight -s d ing
waive:wave -s d ing
way -s:whey:weigh -s 2
 
2. at/pass/art.
ads:adz(US)/e
ant:aunt -s US
bad:(bade?)
cast:caste -s
draft:draught -s 2
hart:heart -s
laager:lager -s
(R:are)
rabbit:rarebit -s 2
 
3. eel,
be:bee(:B)
beach:beech -s
bean:been
beat:beet -s
beetle:betel 2
breach:breech -s
cede:seed -s d ing 2
cedar.seeder -s 3
ceiling:sealing -s 2
cheap:cheep
creak:creek -s
dean:dene -s
demean:demesne
discreet:discrete
eerie:(eyrie?)
feat:feet
feed:fee'd
flea:flee -s
frees:freeze:frieze 2
geezer:geyser -s 2
genes:jean 2
greave:grieve -sheal:heel -s d ing
key:quay -s 2
knead -s d ing:kneed:need -s d ing 2
lea:lee
leach:leech -s
leader:lieder
leaf:lief
leak:leek -s
leaver:RP lever -s
mead:meed
mean:mien
meat -s:meet -s:mete
paean:peon -s 2
pea:pee(:P) -s
peace:piece
peak:peek:pique -s d ing 2
peal:peel -s d ing
(precede?):proceed -s d ing ssion 2
read:reed -s
real:reel
reek:wreak -s ing 2
scene:seen 2
sea:see
seam:seem -s d
seaman:seamen:semen 2
seas:sees:seise:seize 2
steal:steel -s d ing
suite:sweet 2
tea:tee(:T) -s
team:teem -s d ing
we:wee
weak:week
weal:wheel (we'l) 2
weald:wheeled:wield 2
weaver:weever
 
4. let/air.
air -s:ere:e'er:heir -s
airy:(eyrie?)
bare:bear -s d ing
(beret?:)berry:bury -s 3
bread:bred
fair:fare -s
flair:flare
hair -share -s:Herr 2
(L:ell)
lead:led
leant:lent
mare:mayor -s
pair:pare:pear:pére(:payer?)-s
read:red
stair:stare(:stayer) -s
tare:tear -s
their:there (:they're)
ware:wear -s:where 2
weather:wether:whether 2
 
5. eye/fire.
aisle:isle - s
ay:aye -s:eye -s:I
bight:bite:byte -s
buy -s:by:bye -s
buyer:byre -s
choir:quire -s 2
cite:sight:site -s d ing 2
climb:clime -s
die:dye -s d ying yeing
dier -s:dire:dyer -s
dine:dyne -s
drier:dryer
eyelet:islet -s
file:phial -s
find:fined
friar:frier/fryer -s
gibe/jibe:gybe/jibe -s d ing 2
gneiss:nice 3
guide:guyed
guise:guys
hi:hie -s:high -s
hide:hied
higher:hire:hiya
indict:indite -s d ing
liar:lyre -s
lightening:lightning
mind:mined
might:mite
pi-pie
pride:pried
pries:prise:prize, 2
rhyme:rime 2
right:rite:wright:write -s 2
rye:wry 2
shire:shyer
side:sighed
sighs:size 2
sign:sin/e
slight:sleight
stile:style -s
sty:stye -s
thyme:time 2
Thai:tie -s
tide:tied
tire:tyre -s d
vial -s:vile:viol -s
w(h)iled:wild 2
whined:wined:wind 2
 
6. it.ear.
banded:bandied
beer:bier -s
billed:build 2
bogey:bogy
caddie:caddy
cereal:serial -s 2
chilli:chilly
complement:compliment -s d ing
cygnet:signet -s 2
dear:deer
descent:dissent 2
elicit:illicit 2
enquire:inquire -s d ing y
ensure:insure -s d ing
gelid:jellied 3
gild:guild -s
gilt:guilt
hear:here
heroin:heroine
him:hymn 2
links:lynx, 2
marten:martin -s
mealie:mealy
missal -s:missel:mistle:US missile -s 2
peer:pier -s
picks-pyx 2
pitied:pitted 2
poses:posies
profit:prophet -s 2
puisne:puny 2
revere:revers
sandhi:sandy 2
sear -s:seer -s:sere
shear:sheer
story:storey -s d
studded:studied
taxes:taxies:taxis
tear:tier -s
tided:tidied
weepie:weepy
 
7. oat.
beau:bow -s
bode:bowed
bold:bowled
bolder:boulder
bole:bowl -s
broach:brooch -s
coal:cole -s
coat:cote -s
doe:doh:dough
does:doughs:doze 2
felloe:fellow -s
floe:flow -s
foaled:fold
groan:grown
hoes:hose
hold:holed
know:no:Noh 2
knows:noes:nose 3
lo;low
load -s:lode -s:lowed
loan:lone
moan:mown
moat:mote -s
mode:mowed
(O:oh:owe)
ode:owed
pole:poll -s d ing 2
rho:roe:row -s 2
road:rode:rowed
roes:rose:rows
role:roll -s 2
rondeau:rondo -s
sew -s d ing:so:soh:sow
sewn:sown
sloe:slow -s
sold:soled
sole:soul -s
throe:throw -s
throne:thrown
toad:toed:towed
toe-tow -s d ing
whoa:woe
yoke, yolk -s
 
8. owl.our.
aloud:allowed
bough:bow -s
douse/dowse:dowse -s d ing
flour:flower -s d ing
foul:fowl -s
hour;our -s
rouse:rows
rout:US route -s d ing
sough:sow -s
 
9. or/all/lot/oil.
all:awl
aught:ought
aural:oral
aureole:oriole -s
bald:balled:bawled
balk:baulk:baulk -s
ball:bawl -s d ing
boar:(boor?):bore -s
board:bored
boarder:border -s
born:borne:bourn
boy:buoy -s
call:caul -s 2
cause:caws
clause:claws
coarse:corse -s :course -s
coarser:courser
coir-coyer 2
core:corpsfaun:fawn -s
for:fore:four
forego:forgo -ne ing
forth:fourth
gall:Gaul 2
groin:groyne -s
hall:haul -s 2
hoar:whore -s 2
hoard:horde:whored 2
hoarse:horse
mall:maul -s 2
(moor?:)more
morn:mourn -s
morning:mourning
oar -s:or:ore-s
pause:paws
(poor:?)pore:pour -s d ing
shore:(sure?)2
soar:sore -s
soared:sword
(spoor?):spore
swat/swot:swot -s d ing
taut:taught
tor:tore
war:wore
warn:worn
wart:wort
watt:what:wot 3
RP wrath:wroth
yore:RP your
 
10. rue.
blew:blue
brewed:brood
brews:braise 2
bruit:brute -s
cachou:cashew -s 2
chews:choose
choux:shoe -s d ing:shoo -s d ing 2
chute:shoot -s 2
clew:clue
coo:coup -s
crewed:crude
crewel:cruel
crews:cruise -s:cruse -s
cue -s d ing:queue -s d ing(:Q) 2
doer:dour
dew:due -s
droop:drupe -s
ewe:yew:you(:U) 2
ewer. US your -s
ewes:use:yews:youse 2
flew:flu:flue
gnu -s:knew:new -s:nu 2
hew:hue -s
lieu:loo
loot:lute -s
loos:lose
mew:mu -s
mews:rnuse
mood:mooed
puisne:puny 2
review:revue
rheum:room
rood:rude:rued
root:RP route -s d ing
roux:rue
stoop:stoup -s
threw:through
to:too:two
troop:troupe -s
wood:would
 
11. put.
wood:would
 
12. but.
chough:chuff -s 2
cousin:cozen -s3
does:doz
done:dun
dost:dust
none:nun
one:won
rough:ruff -s 2
some:sum
son:sun
ton:tonne:ton -s 2
tough:tuff 2
 
13. fur.
berth:birth -s
curb:kerb -s 2
earn:urn -s
fir:fur
firs:furs:furze
heard:herd
pearl:purl -s
serf:surf -s
serge:surge -s d ing
tern:turn -s
were:whirr 3
whirl:whorl -s
 
14 shwa.
affect:(effect?)
allude:(elude?) -s d ing
allusion:(illusion?) -s
(allusive:?)elusive:illusive
altar:alter -s
baron:barren 2
(baton?):batten -s 2
bazaar:(bizarre?) 2
beetle:betel 2
bridal:bridle
calendar:calender -s
callous:callus
carat:caret:carrot -s 2
caster:castor
cedar.seeder -s 3
cellar:seller -s 2
censer:censor:sensor -s 2
choler:collar 2
council:counsel -s lor 2
coward:cowered
cubical:cubicle
currant:current -s
cymbal:symbol -s 2
dependant:dependent
dollar:dolour -s 2
dual:duel
filter:philtre -s 2
fisher:fissure -s 2
gamble:gambol -s d ing
gorilla:guer/r/illa -s
handsome:hansom 2
hangar:hanger -s
humerus:humorous x2
immanent:(imminent?)
idle:idol -s
lessen:lesson -s
licker:liquor 2
lumbar:lumber
manakin/manikin/mannikin:mannequin -s 3
mangel:mangle -s
manner-rnanor -s 2
mantel:mantle -s
medal:rneddle -s 2
meddler:medlar -s 2
metal:mettle 2
meter:rnetre -s
miner:minor -s
mucose/mucous:mucus
muscle:mussel -s 2
mustard:mustered
naval:navel
(ordinance:ordnance?)
paean:peon -s 2
palate:palette:pallet -s 3
pedal:peddle -s d ing 2
pendant:pendent
petrel:petrol -s
(pidgin?:)pigeon -s 2
prier:prior -s
principal:principle -s
radical:radicle -s
rigger -s:rigor:rigour -s 2
roomer:rumour -s 2
sailer:sailor -s
seraph:(serif)
savory:savoury
seaman:seamen:semen 2
stationary:stationery
succour:sucker -s 2
summary:summery
(surplice?:)surplus -S
taper:tapir -s
tenner:tenor -s, 2
(verdure?):verger/virger 3
villain-villein
whirled:whorled:world 2


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